Standards and Rules

Medical malpractice rules ensure professionalism in the conduct of healthcare providers. A variety of Medical Malpractice rules abound although not all States have enacted all the Medical malpractice rules. Examples of Medical malpractice rules include patient compensation or injury fund, statute of limitation, joint and several liability and doctor apologies or sympathetic acts. This essay reports on statute of limitation and patient compensation.

Statute of limitation is a Medical malpractice rule that sets the amount of time allowable for a legal lawsuit to commence. According to Mcclellan (1993), it is also considered as the period of prescription and seeks to ensure that the legal allegations raised by a patient are valid. Thus, this explains why there is a set time for a patient who deems that a medical practitioner went beyond or did less to ensure his health is restored. This rule protects both the medical practitioners and patients as the practitioners accused falsely by patients can seek legal redress basing on the set time allowable for a plaintiff to report a case against them (Anderson, 2004).

On the other hand, patient compensation or injury fund is a Medical malpractice rule that ensures patients who have legitimate complains or injuries are compensated. Danzon (1985) indicates that 13 States have provisions for this Medical malpractice rule. This rule also promotes the professionalism on the side of Healthcare providers in order to avoid unnecessary fines. Anderson (2004) opines that the rule was established to improve medical services in the United States.

In conclusion, Medical malpractice rules serve the interests of both the patients and the healthcare providers. Various Medical malpractice rules abound and they include patient compensation or injury fund, statute of limitation, joint and several liability and doctor apologies or sympathetic acts. Notably, not all states have enacted all these rules. Thus, it is necessary for patients to know their rights when they visit a health facility. Medical practitioners are also encouraged to familiarize themselves with these rules in order to avoid lawsuits.

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Computer Security and the Modern Home by Tamara Denning, Tadayoshi Kohno, and Henry M. Levy is an article addressing the concept of security of devices applying computer technology in at home. The increased usage of the devices in home has raised issues on security of both the users and the devices. Homes are expected to increase the application of these devices as human beings continue to use complex infrastructure at home (Denning, Tadayoshi & Levy, 2013). Home technologies are prone to traditional attacks which were traditionally directed to offices in organization and institutes. The is the primary reason which drive the authors into the research,

The risks that the users of the devices have to users have been identified. Among the risks identified include increased stress to user, loss of personal data, time wastage and physical damage. The devices are used for communication entertainment and for personal data storage, at time the devices may develop some hitches which increases the stress to users, they can be hacked and the personal data used by unauthorized parties. The author identifies the device goals which an individual should put into consideration to reduce the negative implication of the risks. These goals include the device privacy, availability, and operability (Denning, Tadayoshi & Levy, 2013). According to the authors, it is important to evaluate the potential risks to evaluate risks. This can be done by considering whether the devices are exposed to potential attack, the attractiveness to attacks and the intensity of the impacts if the device is compromised.
The authors of the article put presented the concepts and issues identified adequately and effectively. The read is able to follow and understand the topic under discussion which is essential for the retention of the concepts. The fact the authors used a variety of sources recognized the originality of the concepts used in the article makes their work to be reliable and of high quality.
Computer Science and the Three Rs by Leah Hoffmann is an article whose concern is about the computer studies at k – 12 which does not match to the demand at the advanced programs. The concern raised in the article is crisis brought about at the college level due lack of strong foundation at the primary and second level in education (Hoffmann, 2012). The author cites the words of Stephen Cooper who is a computer professor when he says that it is too late the start studying computer science at the college level.
The concern at the college level is that the computer students have the weakness particularly when it comes to majors in the study. As a general practice such students are not allowed to major in computer science despite their interests in the field. The solution provided in the article is to provide computer studies as a subject in the k – 12 curriculum. This gives students the required foundation to students which assist in capturing their talents the field of study. The current situation limits the performance of student in all other sciences including technology, engineering and mathematic where computer studies have been made the integral part of the studies (Hoffmann, 2012). The challenge of placing computer science in the k – 12 curriculum is that each state has its own approach which undermines unity concerning the matter. The other problem is lack of adequate teacher at the lower level of schooling. This reduces the practicability of adapted computer science in the primary and second school levels.
The article clear about the problem of computer science studies in United States. The problem is primarily identified at its primary courses and the implications when it comes to advanced levels of the study. The comparison of the situation at United Kingdom provides a clear picture of the topic discussed. However, the article remains silent on matter of how some causes of the crises including the shortage of teachers and different approaches applied in different states in the country.
Understanding computers: an overview for records and archives staff by Michael Roper and Laura Millar is an article who primary purpose of it to offer the read the general understanding about a computer. The aim is to provide an individual studying computer science with the basics. There are four lesson presented in the article including the introduction to computer technology, computing environment, computer application and the way forward. The article has six aims and outcomes including the introduction to key components, the provision of information on how computers work, basic issues on computing environment, the application of internet for communication, the storage media and the mean on how to obtain information on computerization (Roper & Millar, 1999).
Each of the four lessons is presented precisely, to make it easy for the reader to understand the concepts. The parts of a computer including the hardware and software are described in the article. The divisions of the hardware into central processing unit, memory, input devices, output and devices can assist the reader to differentiate between the different part and their functions. The computing environment is a key concern to many consumer users; the article provides information on matter such as security, integrity, system availability, data sharing, and application (Roper & Millar, 1999). The concept on how computer works gives the read with the understanding of how databases and electronic mail work. This gives the insight to the reader on how to process information and communicate through a computer.
The article is highly relevant as far as computer study is concerned. This is because it provides the reader with adequate information required in the introduction to the computer studies. Any individual interested in learning computer science is in need of the information provided in the article. There are proposed activities by the authors to assists the readers to put into practice the ideas presented. However, the authors could have made the article stronger by providing pictures and diagrams to demonstrate the parts of the computer.
The promise of consumer technologies in emerging markets by iris Junglas and Jeanne Harris is the other article whose content provides an insight about the application of computer technology in organizations and business enterprises. The usage of devices and their application at the workplaces has increased as workers and organizations try to improve their operations. The application of consumer IT has brought a lot of change, as far as, innovation, productivity, and job satisfaction are concerned. The research shows that the employees from development and developing economics have different perceptions about the application of the consumer IT. In developing economies, the users of the consumer IT view the technology as a tool to drive innovation, job satisfaction and productivity (Junglas & Jeanne, 2013). The authors provide the relationship between economic growth and the application of consumer IT. In Economies where the application of IT has been adapted has increased the productive in companies through the trapping and development of talents.
The article is interesting and very informative about the application of consumer IT as a computer technology. The article uses the data from various countries from different contents and from different levels of development. This makes it easy to understand the differences as far as the application and perception of the consumer IT. The content in the article has been made reliable and authenticated because the authors recognizes the source from which the borrowed ideas were outsources.

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Billie wishes to test the hypothesis that overweight individuals tend to eat faster than normal weight individuals. To test this hypothesis, she has two assistants sit in McDonald’s restaurants and identify individuals who order at lunch time the Big Mac special (Big Mac, large fries, and large coke). The Big Mackers, as the assistants affectionately called them, were classified by the assistants as overweight, or neither nor normal weight. The assistants identify 10 overweight Big Mackers and 30 normal weight Big Mackers. (individuals who were neither overweight nor normal weight were disregarded).

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The assistants record the amount of time it took for the individuals in the two groups to complete their BIG Mac specials meals. One variable is weight with two levels, Overweight (=1) and normal weight (=2). The second variable is time in seconds.

1. Compute a Mann-Whitney U test on these data. From the output, identify the following:
A: p value
B: z value corrected for ties
C: Mean rank for normal weight individuals

2. Conduct an independent-samples T test. Compare the p value for the Mann-Whitney U test with the p value for the independent samples test

3. Write a results section based on your analyses. What should you conclude?

4. If you did not include a graph in your results section, create a graph that shows the distribution of the two groups.